1. Adnan Lahham* and 
  2. Alaa Hammash

+Author Affiliations

  1. Center for Radiation Science & Technology, Al-Quds University, PO Box 20002, Jerusalem, Palestine

↵*Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

  • Received April 13, 2011.
  • Revision received June 26, 2011.
  • Accepted July 11, 2011.


This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank—Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 μW cm−2, from TV broadcasting was 0.007 μW cm−2 and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 μW cm−2. The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 μW cm−2. The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ∼62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 μW cm−2.

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